Control Freaks: How User-Generated Content is Managed in Advertising Campaigns. The Romanian Perspective

Rodica Maria SĂVULESCU

Abstract


The advent of Web 2.0 has brought about a paradigm shift in communication: from an informational Web to an editable one. Consequently, the “one-to-many” communication model of the mass media industry has been replaced by one that involves “many-to-many”. Web 2.0 enables those who were formerly conceptualized as audiences/consumers to be part of an open-source movement that means participating into the production of brands and their meanings. It is an era of convergence, of overlapping roles between producers and users/consumers – in short, of “produsage”, “prosumption” and “user-generated content” (UGC). This article investigates how this new paradigm influences marketing communication by addressing the specific case of the Romanian advertising industry. By using in depth-interviews with 20 advertising professionals, it points out to the fact that in communication campaigns with user-generated content there is still a high degree of control from the brand management and agency teams that cannot quite grasp the concept of brand communication democratization.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, C. T., Fournier, S., and Miller, F. (2008). Brands and Their Meaning Makers. In C. Haugtvedt, P. Herr and F. Kardes (Eds.). Handbook of Consumer Psychology (pp. 781-822). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Asmussen, B., Harridge-March, S., Occhiocupo, N., and Farquhar, J. (2013). The multi-layered nature of the interned-based democratization of brand management. Journal of Business Research, 66, 1473-1483.

Barlow, A. (2008). Blogging America: the new public sphere. Westport: Praeger Publishers.

Bechmann, A., and Lomborg, S. (2012). Mapping actor roles in social media: Different perspectives on value creation in theories of user participation. New Media & Society, 15(5), 765-781.

Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks: how social production transforms markets and freedom. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Bezjian-Avery, A., Calder, B., Iacobucci, D. (1998). New Media Interactive Advertising vs. Traditional Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 38(4), 23-32.

Booth, P. (2010). Digital fandom: new media studies. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Brandtzaeg, P.B., and Heim, J. (2008). User Loyalty and Online Communities: Why Members of Online Communities are not Faithful. In INTETAIN, ICST Second International Conference on Intelligent Technologies and Interactive Entertainment.

Brown, S. (2006). Recycling Postmodern Marketing. The Marketing Review, 6, 211-230.

Bruns, A. (2007) Produsage, Generation C, and Their Effects on the Democratic Process. In Proceedings Media in Transition 5, MIT, Boston. Available at: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/7521.

Bruns, A. (2006) Towards Produsage: Futures for User-Led Content Production. In Sudweeks, Fay, Hrachovec, Herbert, & Ess, Charles (Eds.) Cultural Attitudes towards Communication and Technology 2006, 28 June - 1 July, Tartu, Estonia. Available at: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/4863.

Burmann, C. (2010). A call for “User-Generated Branding”. Journal of Brand Management, 18, 1-4.

Carpentier, N., Dahlgren, P., Pasquali, F. (2013). Waves of media democratization: A brief history of contemporary participatory practices in the media sphere. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 19(3), 287-294.

Castells, M. (1996/2010). The rise of the network society. The information age: economy, society, and culture. Vol. I. 2nd edition. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chaney, P. (2009). The Digital Handshake: Seven Proven Strategies to Grow Your Business Using Social Media. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Christodoulides, G. (2009). Marketing in the post-internet era. Marketing Theory, vol 9 (1), 141-144.

Cook, N. (2008). Enterprise 2.0: how social software will change the future of work. Hampshire: Gower Publishing Limited.

Cova, B., and White, T. (2010). Counter-brand and alter-brand communities: the impact of Web 2.0 on tribal marketing approaches. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(3-4), 256-270.

Creeber, G. (2009). Digital theory: theorizing new media. In Glen Creeber, Royston Martin (Ed.), Digital cultures. Understanding New Media (pp. 11-22), Maidenhead: Open University Press, McGraw-Hill.

Danesi, M. (2013). Semiotizing a product into a brand. Social Semiotics, 23(4), 464-476.

De Certeau, M. (1984). The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

De Pelsmacker, P., and Neijens, P. C. (2009). Special Issue on New Advertising Formats. Journal of Marketing Communications, 15(2-3), 205-206.

Ertimur, B., and Gilly, M. C. (2012). So Whaddya Think? Consumers Create Ads and Other Consumers Critique Them. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26, 115-130.

Firat, F., Venkatesh, A. (1995). Liberatory Postmodernism and the Reenchantment of Consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(3), 239-267.

Fiske, J. (1989). Understanding Popular Culture. London: Unwin Hyman.

Gabriel, Y., and Lang, T. (2006). The Unmanageable Consumer. London: Sage Publications.

Gillmor, D. (2004). We the Media. Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People. Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media.

Hall, S. (1980). Encoding/decoding. In S.Hall, D.Hobson, A.Lowe, and P.Willis (Eds.) Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies 1972-79 (pp. 117-127). London: Routledge.

Hanna, R., Rohm, A., and Crittenden, V.L. (2011). We’re all connected: The power of the social media ecosystem. Business Horizons, 54, 265-273.

Harrison, T.M., and Barthel, M. (2009). Wielding new media in Web 2.0: exploring the history of engagement with the collaborative construction of media products. New Media & Society , 11 (1-2), 155-178.

Jacobs, J. (2012). Faking it – how to kill a business through astroturfing on social media. Keeping Good Companies, 64(9), 567-570.

Janoschka, A. (2004). Web Advertising: New forms of communication on the Internet. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual poachers: television fans and participatory culture. New York: Routledge.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.

Jenkins, H., Ravi, P., Weigl, M., Clinton, K., and Robinson, A.J. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: media education for the 21st century. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Katyal, S. (2010). Stealth Marketing and Antibranding: The Love That Dare Not Speak Its Name. Buffalo Law Review, 58, 795-849.

Keen, A. (2007). The cult of the amateur: how today’s internet is killing our culture. New York: Doubleday/ Currency.

Kirtiș, A.K., and Karahan, F. (2011). To be or not to be in social media arena as the most cost-efficient marketing strategy after the global recession, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 260-268.

Labrecque, L.I., Vor dem Esche, J., Mathwick, C., Novak, T.P., and Hofacker, H.F. (2013). Consumer Power: Evolution in the Digital Age. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 27, 254-269.

Leadbeater, C., and Miller, P. (2004). The Pro-am Revolution: How enthusiasts are changing our economy and society. London: Demos.

Lessig, L. (2004). Free culture: how big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity. New York: The Penguin Press.

Levinson, P. (2001). Marshall McLuhan în era digitală [Digital McLuhan]. Bucharest: Antent Lucman.

Lih, A. (2009). The Wikipedia revolution: how a bunch of nobodies created the world’s largest encyclopedia. New York: Hyperion.

Livingstone, S. and Das, R. (2013). The End of Audiences? Theoretical Echoes of Reception Amid the Uncertainities of Use. In John Hartley, Jean Burgess, Axel Bruns (Ed.). A Companion to New Media Dynamics (pp. 104-121). West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Macnamara, J. (2010). Public communication practices in the Web 2.0-3.0 mediascape: The case for Prevolution. PRism, 7(3), 1-13.

Massa, S., and Testa, S. (2012). The role of ideology in brand strategy: The case of a food retail company in Italy. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 40(2), 109-127.

Milne, E. (2013). Parody: Affective Registers, Amateur Esthetics and Intellectual Property. Cultural Studies Review, 19(1), 193-215.

Napoli, P. (2011). Audience evolution: new technologies and the transformation of media audiences. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nudd, T. (2014). Coca-Cola Unveils First TV Ad Made Completely With User-Generated Content. Available at http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/coca-cola-unveils-first-tv-ad-made-completely-user-generated-content-157857.

O’Reilly, T. (2005). What is Web 2.0: design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. Available at http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html.

Platteel, A. (2003). Margeting: Inventing a Different Marketing Language. Rotterdam: Episode Publishers.

Quinton, S. (2013). The community brand paradigm: A response to brand management’s dilemma in the digital age. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(7-8), 912-932.

Ramsey, L. (2010). Brandjacking on Social Networks: Trademark Infringement by Impersonation of Markholders. Buffalo Law Review, 58, 851-929.

Roberts, H. (2012). #McFail! McDonalds' Twitter promotion backfires as users hijack #McDstories hashtag to share fast food horror stories. Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2090862/McDstories-McDonalds-Twitter-promotion-backfires-users-share-fast-food-horror-stories.html.

Scolari, C. (2008). Online brands: Branding, possible worlds, and interactive grammars. Semiotica, 169(1/ 4), 169-188.

Shipman, A. (2001). Privatized Production, Socialized Consumption? Old Producer Power Behind the New Consumer Sovereignity. Review of Social Economy, LIX(3), 331-352.

Simmons, G. (2008). Marketing to postmodern consumers: introducing the internet chameleon. European Journal of Marketing, 42(3-4), 299-310.

Toffler, A. (1980/2001). Al Treilea Val [The Third Wave]. Bucharest: Antet & Lucman.

Turner, G. (2010). Ordinary People and the Media. The Demotic Turn. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Tuten, T.L. (2008). Advertising 2.0: social media marketing in a web 2.0 world. Westport: Praeger Publishers.

Vanden Bergh, B.G., Lee, M., Quilliam, E.T., and Hove, T. (2011). The multi-dimensional nature and brand impact of user-generated ad parodies in social media. International Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 103-131.

Wardle, C., and Williams, A. (2010). Beyond user-generated content: a production study examining the ways in which UGC is used at the BBC. Media, Culture & Society, 32(5), 781-799.

Wunsch-Vincent, S., Vickery, G. (2007). Participative Web: user-created content. Paris: OECD Publications.

Xia, L. (2013). Effects of Companies’ Responses to Consumer Criticism in Social Media. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 17(4), 73-99.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c)



© Faculty of Management (SNSPA)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under CC BY-NC

The opinions expressed in the papers published are the authors’ own and do not necessarily express the views of the editors of this journal. The authors assume all responsibility for the ideas expressed in the materials published.

ISSN 2392-8042 (online)