Knowledge-Based Economy in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico: A Comparative Analysis from the Bio-Economy Perspective


  • Ana Barbara MUNGARAY-MOCTEZUMA School of Economics and International Relations, Autonomous University of Baja California
  • Sylvia Monica PEREZ-NUÑEZ Autonomous University of Baja California
  • Santos LÓPEZ-LEYVA Autonomous University of Baja California


The objective of this article is to determine the necessary institutional characteristics of technology and human capital in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico in order to evolve towards a knowledge-based economy, addressing the importance of institutions for their development. In particular, the knowledge-based economy is analyzed from the perspective of bioeconomics. Based on the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) which considers 148 indicators, in the following categories: a) economic performance and institutional regime; b) education and human resources, c) innovation, and d) information and communication technologies, we selected 13 indicators. We aim to identify the strengths and opportunities for these countries in order to meet the challenges that arise from the paradoxes of technological progress and globalization. In this sense, bioeconomy is approached as part of the economy. This analysis shows, among other things, that Argentina has greater potential to compete in an economy sustained in the creation and dissemination of knowledge, while Costa Rica has an institutional and regulatory environment that is more conducive to the development of business activities, and Mexico faces significant challenges regarding its institutional structure, economic performance and human resources.

Author Biography

Santos LÓPEZ-LEYVA, Autonomous University of Baja California

Autonomous University of Baja California


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How to Cite

MUNGARAY-MOCTEZUMA, A. B., PEREZ-NUÑEZ, S. M., & LÓPEZ-LEYVA S. (2015). Knowledge-Based Economy in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico: A Comparative Analysis from the Bio-Economy Perspective. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 3(2), 213. Retrieved from