Four Seasons in One Day: The Different Shades of Organisational Culture in Higher Education

Balázs HEIDRICH, Nick CHANDLER

Abstract


Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study seeks to explore the diversity of culture amongst the staff of a business school in Hungary and then examine how this diversity may impact upon the organisation’s orientations towards three aspects of market orientation: interfunctional cooperation; competition and the student orientation. The diversity of culture is found through the identification of five subcultures. These subcultures exhibit signs of both heterogeneity and homogeneity as two pairs of subcultures are divided not by differences in values themselves but by the expressed strength of values. The empirical findings indicate that each subculture varies in perception of the dominant cultures of the organisation and its particular market orientation in relation to culture type. Furthermore, some subcultures perceive themselves as enhancing, when this may not be the case and others perceive themselves as counter cultures. The qualitative study confirms that subcultures have both homogenous and heterogeneous aspects in relation to other subcultures as well as the perceived dominant culture. This greater complexity gives an extension to the existing perspectives taken on organisation culture, although this would need to be confirmed with generalizable research.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alderfer, C.P. (1987). An Intergroup Perspective on Group Dynamics. In J.W. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior (pp.190-222). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Becher, T. (1984). The Cultural View. In B.R. Clark (Ed.), Perspectives on Higher Education (pp.165-198), Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Becher, T. (1987). The disciplinary shaping of the profession. In B.R. Clark (Ed.), The academic profession (pp.271-303). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Becher, T. (1989). Academic tribes and territories. Intellectual enquiry and the cultures of disciplines. Milton Keynes: SRHE & Open University Press.

Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. New York: The Free Press.

Berquist, W. (1992). The four cultures of the academy. San Francisco: Jossey‐Bass.

Bila, T.A., and Miller, M.T. (1997). College Faculty Culture: Dominance in the Academy. Annual Conference of the Popular Culture Association. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED412876.

Boisnier, A., and Chatman, J.A. (2002). The Role of Subcultures in Agile Organizations. In R.S. Peterson and E. Mannix (Eds.), Leading and Managing People in Dynamic Organizations (pp.87-114). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence

Earlbaum Associates.

Bourdieu, P. (1988). Homo academicus. London: Polity.

Bowen, H., and Schuster, J. (1986). American professors: A national resource imperilled. New York: Oxford University Press.

Burke, M., and MacKenzie, M. (2002). Working effectively within a changing organisational environment. Brisbane, Australia: Student Support Services, University of Queensland.

Cameron, K., and Quinn, R. (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,

Clark, B.R. (1963). Faculty cultures. In T.F. Lunsford (Ed.), The study of campus culture (pp.39-54). Boulder, CO: Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education.

Clark, B.R. (1987). The Academic Life. Small Worlds, Different Worlds. Princeton: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Clark, B.R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities. Organizational pathways to transformation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Cohen, A.K. (1955). A general theory of subcultures. Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. New York: The Free Press.

Collini, S. (1993). The Two Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Etzkowitz, H. (2003). The norms of entrepreneurial science: Cognitive effects of the new university-industry linkages. Research Policy, 27(8), 823-833.

Ferreira, A., and Hill, M. (2008). Organisational cultures in public and private Portuguese universities: A case study. Higher Education, 55(6), 637-650.

Finkelstein, M.J. (1984). The American Academic Profession: A Synthesis of Social Scientific Inquiry since World War II. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Freedman, M.B., Brown, W., Ralph, N., Shukraft, R., Bloom, M., and Sanford, N. (1979). Academic culture and faculty development. Berkeley, CA: Montaigne.

Gaál, Z., Szabó, L., Kovács, Z., Obermayer-Kovács, N., and Csepregi, A. (2010). Clan, Adhocracy, Market or Hierarchy? Which is the Best for Knowledge Sharing in Hungary?. In Proceedings of 2nd European Conference on Intellectual Capital (pp.249-256). Reading: Academic Publishing Limited.

Gerdhe, S. (2012). The Policies That Affect the Extent of the Subcultures' Alignment in Organization. Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, 2(1). Retrieved from http://www.scientificpapers.org/download/136/.

Gregory, K. (1983). Native-View Paradigms: Multiple Cultures and Culture Conflicts in Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28(3), 359-376.

Hage, J., and Aiken, M. (1967). Relationship of centralization to other structural properties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12(1), 72-91.

Hatch, M.J. (1997). Organizational Culture, Organization Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hemsley-Brown, J., and Oplatka, I. (2010). Market Orientation in Universities: A comparative study of two national higher education systems. International

Journal of Educational Management, 24(3), 204-220.

Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D., and Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study Across Twenty Cases. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(2), 286-316.

Hofstede, G. (1998). Identifying organizational subcultures: An empirical approach. Journal of Management Studies, 35(1), 1-12.

Hopkins, W.E., Hopkins, S.A., and Mallette, P. (2005). Aligning Organizational Subcultures for Competitive Advantage. New York: Basic Books.

Kleijnen, J., Dolmans, D., Muijtjens, A., Willems, J., and Van Hout, H. (2009). Organisational values in Higher Education: Perceptions and preferences of staff. Quality in Higher Education, 15(3), 233-249.

Kottak, C.P. (2005). Windows on Humanity. New York: McGrawHill.

Kuh, G.D., and Whitt, E.J. (1988). The invisible tapestry: Culture in American colleges and universities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Higher Education.

Van Maanen, J., and Barley, S.R. (1985). Cultural Organization: Fragments of a Theory. In P.J. Frost, L.F. Moore, M.R. Louis, C.C. Lundberg, and J. Martin (Eds.), Organizational Culture (pp.31-53). Beverly Hills: Sage.

Martin, J. (2002). Organizational Culture: Mapping the Terrain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Martin, J., and Siehl, C. (1983). Organizational culture and counterculture: An uneasy symbiosis. Organizational Dynamics, 12(2), 52-64.

Merton, R.K. (1957). Social theory and social structure. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Miles, M., and Huberman, A. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Millett, J.D. (1962). The academic community. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Morgan, G. (1986). Images of Organisation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Musselin, C. (2013). Redefinition of the relationships between academics and their university. Higher Education, 65(1), 25-37.

Naidoo, R. (2008). Building Sustainable Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.eldis.org/.

Narver, J.C., and Slater, S.F. (1990). The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 54(10), 20-35.

Palthe, J., and Kossek, E. (2002). Subcultures and employment modes: translating HR strategy into practice. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(3), 287-308.

Quinlan, K.M., and Akerlind, G.S. (2000). Factors affecting departmental peer collaboration for faculty development: Two cases in context. Higher Education, 40(1), 23-52.

Riesman, D., and Jencks, C. (1961). The Viability of the American College. In N. Sanford (Ed.), The American College (pp.74-192). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Ruscio, K.P. (1987). Many sectors, many professions. In B.R. Clark (Ed.) The Academic Profession (pp.331-368). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Sackmann, S. (1992). Culture and subcultures: An analysis of organizational knowledge, Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(1), 140-161.

Salk, J.E. (1989). Starting from difference: an intergroup approach to understanding culture in organisations. Working paper, Alfred P. Sloan School of Management. Retrieved from http://dspace.mit.edu/.

Sanford, N. (1971). Academic culture and the teacher’s development. Soundings, 54(4), 357-371.

Schein, E. (1988). Organizational socialization and the profession of management. Sloan Management Review, 30(1), 53-65.

Schouten, J., and McAlexander, J. (1993). Market Impact of a Consumption Subculture: the Harley-Davidson Mystique. In W.F. Van Raaij and G.J. Bamossy (Eds.), E - European Advances in Consumer Research (pp.389-393). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Snow, C.P. (1993). The Two Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thomas, C.M., Ward, M., Chorba, C., and Kumiega, A. (1990). Measuring and Interpreting Organizational Culture. Journal of Nursing Administration, 20(6), 17-24.

Tierney, W.G. (1988). Organizational culture in higher education. Journal of Higher Education, 59(1), 2-21.

Tierney, W.G. (2008). Trust and Organizational Culture in Higher Education. In J. Välimaa, and O.H. Ylijoki (Eds.), Cultural Perspectives on Higher Education (pp.27-41). Berlin: Springer.

Trice, H.M. (1993). Occupational subcultures in the workplace. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

Trice, H.M., and Beyer, J. (1993). The culture of work organizations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Valimaa, J. (1998). Culture and identity in higher education. Higher Education, 36(2), 119-138.

Weber, P.S., and Weber, J.E. (2001). Changes in employee perceptions during organizational change. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(6), 291-300.

Yeung, A.K.O., Brockbank, J.W., and Ulrich, D.O. (1991). Organizational Cultures and Human Resource Practices: An Empirical Assessment. In R.W. Woodman and W.A. Pasmore (Eds.), Research in Organizational Change and Development (pp.59-81). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© Faculty of Management (SNSPA)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under CC BY-NC

The opinions expressed in the papers published are the authors’ own and do not necessarily express the views of the editors of this journal. The authors assume all responsibility for the ideas expressed in the materials published.

ISSN 2392-8042 (online)