The Impact of Country-of-Origin, Ethnocentrism and Animosity on Product Evaluation: Evidence from Romania


  • Tana Cristina LICSANDRU CITY College, An International Faculty of the University of Sheffield
  • Leslie T. SZAMOSI CITY College, An International Faculty of the University of Sheffield
  • Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS Eric Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6, Canada


Purpose: The aim of the research is to identify whether product country image influences consumption patterns and purchase decisions of Romanian consumers, as well as to identify stereotypes regarding foreign products. Furthermore, the study aims to provide clear evidence regarding Romanian consumers’ ethnocentric tendencies and the countries towards which they exhibit animosity feelings. Research Methodology/Approach: Quantitative data collection method applied on Romanian consumers, with a sample consisting of 150 respondents, living in Bucharest, answering a tested self-administered questionnaire based on the CETSCALE. Findings: The results of the research show that country of origin impacts product evaluation, with a significantly high difference between domestic products (Romania) and those from three foreign countries (Russia, Hungary and South Korea). The results suggest that the level of consumer ethnocentrism is low among Romanians, but they do exhibit certain animosity tendencies towards Russia and Hungary with substantive demographic differences identified. Originality/value: The research is the first of its kind conducted among Romanians, adding knowledge to the country-of-origin topic, as well as regarding consumer ethnocentrism and animosity issues. Practical implications: This research is of interest to those looking to export to Romania. It provides clear insight regarding the Romanian consumers’ perceptions regarding foreign products, their ethnocentric tendencies and the potential animosity feelings that they are exhibiting. Furthermore, it offers an useful tool for market segmentation. Keywords: international business, consumer behaviour, country-of-origin, ethnocentrism, animosity.


Agrawal, J. and Kamakura, W. (1999). Country of origin: A competitive advantage? International Journal of Research in Marketing, 16, 255–267.

Ahmed, S. et al. (1994). Country-of-Origin Effects on Purchasing Managers’ Product Perceptions. Industrial Marketing Management, 23, 323-332.

Ahmed, S. and D’Astous, A. (1994). Comparison of country-of origin effects on household and organizational buyers’ product perceptions. European Journal of Marketing, 29 (3), 35-51.

Al-Sulaiti, K. and Baker, M. (1998). Country of origin effects: a literature review. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 16 (3), 150-199.

Amine, L.S. et al. (2005). Executive Insights: Exploring the Practical Effects of Country of Origin, Animosity, and Price–Quality Issues: Two Case Studies of Taiwan and Acer in China, Journal of International Marketing, 13 (2), 114–150.

Balabanis, G. et al. (2001). The impact of nationalism, patriotism and internationalism on consumer ethnocentric tendencies. Journal of International Business Studies, 32 (1), 157-175.

Bilkey, W. and Nes, E. (1982). Country of origin effects on product evaluations. Journal of International Business Studies, spring/summer, 89-95.

Chan, T.S. et al. (2010). How Consumer Ethnocentrism and Animosity Impair the Economic Recovery of Emerging Markets. Journal of Global Marketing, 23, 208–225.

Cheng, J. and Sutikno, B. (2011). Towards Consumer Ethnocentrism and Animosity in Indonesia. International Journal of Management and Business Res., 1 (1), 15-18.

Cox, D.F. (1962). The Measurement of Information Value: A Study in Consumer Decision-Making. Emerging Concepts in Marketing. American Marketing Association, 413-421.

D’Astous, A. and Ahmed, S. (1999), The importance of country images in the formation of consumer product perceptions, International Marketing Review, 16 (2), 108 – 126.

Diamantopoulos, A. et al. (2012). Are Consumers Really Willing to Pay More for a Favorable Country Image? A Study of Country-of-Origin Effects on Willingness to Pay. Journal of International Marketing, 20 (1), 19–41.

Gurhan-Canli, Z. and Maheswaran, D. (2000). Cultural Variations in Country of origin effects. Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (3), 309-317.

Han, C. (1989). Country Image: Halo or Summary Construct? Journal of Marketing Research, 26(5), 222-229.

Hong, S-T. and Kang, D.K. (2006). Country-of-Origin Influences on Product Evaluations: The Impact of Animosity and Perceptions of Industriousness Brutality on Judgments of Typical and Atypical Products. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 16 (3), 232-239.

Hooley, G. et al. (1988). A method for modelling consumer perceptions of country of origin, International marketing review, Autumn, 67-76.

INSSE (2012, October 24) International trade. Retrieved from

Jossiassen, A. et al. (2011). Consumer ethnocentrism and willingness to buy: Analyzing the role of three demographic consumer characteristics. International Marketing Review, 28 (6), 627-646.

Keller, K.L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57 (1), 1-22.

Knight, G. and Calantone, R. (2000). A flexible model of consumer country-of-origin perceptions. A cross-cultural investigation. International Marketing Review, 17 (2), 127-145.

Leong, S.M. et al. (2008). Understanding consumer animosity in an international crisis: nature, antecedents and consequences. Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (6), 996-1009.

Lu Wang, C. and Chen, Z. (2004). Consumer ethnocentrism and willingness to buy domestic products in a developing country setting: testing moderating effects. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21 (6), 391-400.

Nadiri, H. and Tumer, M. (2010). Influence of ethnocentrism on consumers’ intention to buy domestically produced goods: an empirical study in North Cyprus. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 11 (3), 444–461.

Nes, E.B. et al. (2011). Exploring the animosity domain and the role of affect in a cross-national context. International Business Review, 1-15.

Nijssen, E. and Douglas, S. (2003). Examining the animosity model in a country with a high level of foreign trade. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21, 23-38.

Okechuku, C. (1994). The importance of product country of origin: A conjoint analysis of the United States, Canada, Germany and the Netherlands. European Journal of Marketing, 28 (4), 5-19.

Papadopoulos, N. et al. (2011). Consumer Animosity: A Comparative Perspective, Developments in Marketing Science, 34, 24-27.

Papadopoulos, N. (1993). What product and country images are and are not. In Papadopoulos, N.G. and Heslop, L. (Ed.) (1993) Product-country images. Impact and role in international marketing (pp.3-39). New York: The Haworth Press.

Papadopoulos, N. and Malhorta, S.H. (2007). Ethnicity. Unpublished Phd. Thesis, University of Carleton: International Business Study Group.

Puzakova, M. et al. (2010). Mitigating consumer ethnocentrism via advertising and media consumption in a transitional market. A study from Russia. International Journal of Advertising, 29 (5), 727–764.

Riefler, P. and Diamantopoulos, A. (2007). Consumer animosity: a literature review and a reconsideration of its measurement. International Marketing Review, 24 (1), 87 – 119.

Saffu, K. and Walker, J.H. (2005). An Assessment of the Consumer Ethnocentric Scale (CETSCALE) in an Advanced and Transitional Country: The Case of Canada and Russia. International Journal of Management, 22 (4), 556-571.

Shankarmahesh, M.N. (2006). Consumer ethnocentrism: an integrative review of its antecedents and consequences. International Marketing Review, 23 (2), 146-172.

Shimp, T. and Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer Ethnocentrism: Construction and Validation of the CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research, 24, 280-289.

Spillan, J. and Harcar, T. (2012). Chilean Consumers Ethnocentrism Factors and Their Perception Regarding Foreign Countries Products. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 6 (1), 34-55.

Urbonavicius, S. et al. (2011). Country Image and Product Evaluations: Impact of a Personal Contact with a Country, Engineering-Economics, 22 (2), 214-221.

Verlegh, P. et al. (1999). A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research. Journal of Economic Psychology, 20, 521-546.

Verlegh, P. (2007). Home country bias in product evaluation: the complementary roles of economic and social-psychological motives. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (3), 361-373.

Wang, C.L. and Chen, Z.X. (2004). Consumer ethnocentrism and willingness to buy domestic products in a developing country setting: testing moderating effects. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21 (6), 391-400.




How to Cite

LICSANDRU, T. C., SZAMOSI, L. T., & PAPADOPOULOS, N. (2013). The Impact of Country-of-Origin, Ethnocentrism and Animosity on Product Evaluation: Evidence from Romania. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 1(2), 259. Retrieved from