Brand Image as a Function of Self-Image and Self-Brand Connection

Rares MOCANU

Abstract


This study investigates how brand image relates to self-image and how brand consumption contributes to the construction of self. Most of the research on brand image refers to brand attitudes. Day (1970) considers attitudes "a central integrating feature” in marketing theory and advertising evaluation. Gardner (1985, p.197) studied differences in brand attitudes as they relate to advertisements, finding attitude toward an advertisement affects attitude toward the advertised brand as much under a brand evaluation set as under a non-brand evaluation set. The present study goes beyond Gardner's research to show why such attitudes exist as they relate to brand consumption and self-image. Erickson and Johansson (1985) also investigated product evaluations, with an analysis of surveyed beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding fashion brands. They concluded that price is not a significant determinant of overall attitude. This study inquires whether brand attitudes and beliefs correlate with purchase behavior in the form of self-brand connection.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Cloke, C. (1995). Forging the circle: The relationship between children, policy and practice in children’s rights. In C. Cloke & M. Davies (Eds.), Participation and empowerment in child protection (265–285). London: Pitman Publishing.

Cohen, R.J. (1999). What qualitative research can be. Psychology & Marketing, 16, 351–368.

Costanzo, P.R., and Shaw, M.C. (1966). Conformity as a function of age level. Child Development, 37, 967–975.

Darley, W.K. (1999). The relationship of antecedents of search and self-esteem to adolescent search effort and perceived product knowledge. Psychology & Marketing, 16, 409–428.

Day, G.S. (1970). Buyer attitudes and brand choice behavior. New York: The Free Press.

Deci, E.L., and Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

DelVecchio, G. (2002). Creating ever-cool: A marketer’s guide to a kid’s heart. New Orleans: Pelican Publishing Company, Inc.

DeMooij, M. (2004). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Denissen, J.J.A., Penke, L., Schmitt, D.P., and van Aken, M.A.G. (2008). Self-esteem reactions to social interactions: Evidence for sociometer mechanisms across days, people, and nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 181–196.

DeWall, N.C., Maner, J.K., and Rouby, A.D. (2009). Social exclusion and early-stage interpersonal perception: Selective attention to signs of acceptance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 729–741.

Diamond, N., Sherry, J.F., Muniz, A.M., McGrath, M.A., Kozinets, R.V., and Borghini, S. (2009). American girl and the brand gestalt: Closing the loop on sociocultural branding research. Journal of Marketing, 73, 118–134.

Dittmar, H., and Pepper, L. (1994). To have is to be: Materialism and person perception in working-class and middle-class British adolescents. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15, 233–251.

Drake, M.F., and Ford, I.M. (1979). Adolescent clothing and adjustment. Home Economics Research Journal, 7, 283–291.

Elliott, R. (1995). How do the unemployed maintain their identity in a culture of consumption? European Advances in Consumer Research, 2, 273–276.

Elliott, R. (1999). Symbolic meaning and postmodern consumer culture. In D. Brownlie, M. Saren, R. Wensley, and R. Whittinghan (Eds.), Rethinking marketing (112–125). London: Sage.

Elliott, R., and Leonard, C. (2004). Peer pressure and poverty: Exploring fashion brands and consumption symbolism among children of the ‘British poor’. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 3, 347–359.

Elliott, R., and Wattanasuwan, K. (1998). Brands as symbolic resources for the construction of identity. International Journal of Advertising, 17, 131–144.

Erickson, G.M., and Johansson, J.K. (1985). The role of price in multi-attribute product evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 195-199.

Escalas, J.E., and Bettman, J.R. (2005). Self-construal, reference groups and brand meaning. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 378–389.

Ferraro, R., Bettman, J.R., and Chartrand, T.L. (2009). The power of strangers: The effect of incidental consumer brand encounters on brand choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 729–741.

Fitzsimons, G.M., Chartrand, T.L., and Fitzsimons, G.J. (2008). Automatic effects of brand exposure on motivated behavior: How Apple makes you “think different”. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 21–35.

Flick, U. (2002). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.

Gao, L., Wheeler, S.C., and Shiv, B. (2009). The “shaken self”: Product choices as a means of restoring self-view confidence. Journal of Consumer Research, 36, 29–38.

Gardner, M.P. (1985). Does attitude toward the ad affect brand attitude under a brand evaluation set? Journal of Marketing Research, 5, 192-198.

Goldberg, M.E., Gorn, G.J., Peracchio, L.A., and Bamossy, G. (2003). Understanding materialism among youth. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13, 278–288.

Greene, S., and Hill, M. (2005). Researching children’s experience: Methods and methodological issues. In S. Greene and D. Hogan (Eds.), Researching children’s experience: Approaches and methods (1–21). London: Sage.

Hall, A.L., and Rist, R.C. (1999). Integrating multiple qualitative research methods (or avoiding the precariousness of a one-legged stool). Psychology & Marketing, 16, 291–304.

Henry, P. (2004). Hope, hopelessness, and coping: A framework for class-distinctive cognitive capital. Psychology & Marketing, 21, 375–403.

Hill, M. (2005). Ethical considerations in researching children’s experiences. In S. Greene & D. Hogan (Eds.), Researching children’s experience. Approaches and methods (61–86). London: Sage Publications.

Hill, R.P., and Stephens, D.L. (1997). Impoverished consumers and consumer behavior: The case of AFDC mothers. Journal of Macro-marketing, 17, 32–48.

Hills, D.A. (1984). Prediction of effectiveness in leaderless group discussions with the adjective check list. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 15(5), 443-447.

Hirschman, E.C. (2010). Evolutionary branding. Psychology & Marketing, 27, 568–583.

Hogg, M.K., Bruce, M., and Hill, A. J. (1998). Fashion brand preferences among young consumers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution, 26, 293.

Holt, D.B. (2002). Why do brands cause trouble? A dialectical theory of consumer culture and branding. Journal of Consumer Research, 29, 70–90.

Hooper, C., Gorin, S., Cabral, C., and Dyson, C. (2007). Living with hardship 24/7: The diverse experiences of families in poverty in England. York: York Publishing Services Ltd.

Horgan, D.D. (1986). Wordsort. Unpublished Manuscript.

Hughes, R. (1998). Considering the vignette technique and its application to a study of drug injecting and HIV risk and safer behavior. Sociology of Health and Illness, 20, 381–400

Isaksen, K.J., and Roper, S. (2008). The impact of branding on low-income adolescents: A vicious cycle? Psychology & Marketing, 25, 1063–1087.

Jacob, J. (1978). Brand loyalty measurement and management. New York: Ronald Press.

Ji, M. F. (2002). Children’s relationships with brands: ‘True love’ or ‘one night’ stand? Psychology & Marketing, 19, 369-387

John, D.R. (1999). Consumer socialization of children. A retrospective look at twenty-five years of research. Journal of Consumer Research, 26, 183-213.

Kasser, T., and Ryan, R.M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410-422.

Kay, A.C., Gaucher, D., Peach, J.M., Laurin, K., Friesen, J., Zanna, M.P., et al. (2009). Inequality, discrimination, and the power of the status quo: Direct evidence for a motivation to see the way things are as the way they should be. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 421-434.

Kilbourne, W.E., and LaForge, M. C. (2010). Materialism and its relationship to individual values. Psychology & Marketing, 27, 780–798.

Kozinets, R.V. (2001). Utopian enterprise: Articulating the meanings of Star Trek’s culture of consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 67-88.

Kraus, M.W., Piff, P.K., and Keltner, D. (2009). Social class, sense of control, and social explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 992-1004.

Lash, S., and Urry, J. (1994). Economies of signs and space. London: Sage.

Leary, M.R., Tambor, E.S., Terdal, S.K., and Downs, D.L. (1995). Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 518-530.

Levin, D.E., and Linn, S. (2003). The commercialization of childhood: Understanding the problem and finding solutions. In T. Kasser and A.D. Kanner (Eds.), Psychology and consumer culture: The struggle for a good life in a materialistic world. (213-232). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Luedicke, M.K., and Giesler, M. (2007). Brand communities and their social antagonists: Insights from the Hummer case. In B. Cova, R. V. Kozinets, & A. Shankar (Eds.), Consumer tribes (275-295). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Madriz, E. (2000). Focus groups in feminist research. In N.K. Denzin, and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., 835–851). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Mandrik, C.A., Fern, E.F., and Bao, Y. (2005). Intergenerational influence: Roles of conformity to peers and communication effectiveness. Psychology & Marketing, 22, 813-832.

Marsh, H.W., and Barnes, J. (1985). Self-other agreement on multidimensional self-concept ratings: Factor analysis and multitrai-tmultimethod analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(5), 1360-1377

Martin, M.C., and Kennedy, P.F. (1993). Advertising and social comparison: Consequences for female pre-adolescents and adolescents. Psychology & Marketing, 10, 513-530.

Masson, J. (2004). The legal context. In S. Fraser, V. Lewis, S. Ding, M. Kellett, and C. Robinson (Eds.), Doing research with children and young people (43-58). London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Mayo, E. (2005a). Shopping generation. Young Consumers, Quarter 3, 43–49.

Mayo, E. (2005b). Shopping generation. London: National Consumer Council.

Mayo, E., and Nairn, A. (2009). Consumer kids: How big business is grooming our children for profit. London: Constable and Robinson.

McAlister, A.R., and Cornwell, T. B. (2010). Children’s brand symbolism understanding: Links to theory of mind and executive functioning. Psychology & Marketing, 27, 203–228.

McCracken, G. (1993). The value of the brand: An anthropological perspective. In D. Aaker and A. Biel (Eds.), Brand equity and advertising (125–139). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mehrota, S., and VanAuken, S. (1981). Adjective profiles in television copy testing: How to assess correlates of persuasion. Journal of Advertising Research, 21(4), 21-25.

Mitchell, A.A. (1986). The effect of verbal and visual components of advertisements on brand attitudes and attitude toward advertisement. Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 12-24.

Moschis, G.P., and Moore, R.L. (1979). Decision making among the youth: A socialization perspective. The Journal of Consumer Research, 6, 101–112.

Nairn, A., Griffin, C., and Wicks, P.G. (2008). Children’s use of brand symbolism: A consumer culture theory approach. European Journal of Marketing, 42, 627–640.

Nancarrow, C., and Nancarrow, P. (2007). Hunting for cool tribes. In B. Cova, R. V. Kozinets, & A. Shankar (Eds.), Consumer tribes (129–143). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

Nesselroade, K.P., Beggan, J.K., and Allison, S.T. (1999). Possession Enhancement in an Interpersonal Context: An Extension of the Mere Ownership Effect, Psychology & Marketing, 16, 21–34.

Okazaki, S. (2008). Determining factors of mobile-based word-of-mouth campaign referral among Japanese adolescents. Psychology & Marketing, 25, 714-731.

Orth, U., Robins, R.W., and Roberts, B.W. (2008). Low self-esteem prospectively predicts depression in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 695-708.

Piacentini, M., and Mailer, G. (2004). Symbolic consumption in teenagers’ clothing choices. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 3, 251-262.

Pînzaru, F. (2009). Manual de marketing. Principii clasice și practici actuale eficiente [Handbook of marketing. Classical principles and efficient current practices]. Bucharest: C.H.Beck.

Reynolds, T.J., and Guttman, J. (1988). Laddering theory, method, analysis, and interpretation. Journal of Advertising Research, 28, 11–31.

Richins, M.L. (1991). Social comparison and the idealized images of advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 71–83

Richins, M.L., and Dawson, S. (1992). A consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 19, 303-316.

Ridge, T. (2002). Childhood poverty and social exclusion. From a child’s perspective. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press.

Rindfleisch, A., Burroughs, J.E., and Wong, N. (2009). The safety of objects: Materialism, existential insecurity, and brand connection. Journal of Consumer Research, 36, 1–16.

Roper, S., and LaNiece, C. (2008). The importance of brands in the lunch-box choices of low-income British school-children. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 8, 84-99.

Roper, S., and Shah, B. (2007). Vulnerable consumers: The social impact of branding on children. Equal Opportunities International, 26, 712–728.

Rose, G.M., Boush, D.M., and Friestad, M. (1997). Self-esteem, susceptibility to interpersonal influence, and fashion attribute preference in early adolescents. European Advances in Consumer Research, 3, 197–203.

Rose, P., and DeJesus, S.P. (2007). A model of motivated cognition to account for the link between self-monitoring and materialism. Psychology & Marketing, 24, 93-115.

Rosenberg, M., and Pearlin, L.I. (1978). Social class and self-esteem among children and adults. American Journal of Sociology, 84, 53-77.

Ross, J., and Harradine, R. (2004). I’m not wearing that! Branding and young children. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 8, 11–26.

Rucker, D.D., and Galinsky, A.D. (2008). Desire to acquire: Powerlessness and compensatory consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 257–267.

Ryan, L., and Dziurawiec, S. (2001). Materialism and its relation to life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 55, 185–197

Salzer-Morling, M., and Strannegard, L. (2004). Silence of the brands. European Journal of Marketing, 38, 224–238.

Saxton, G. (2005). Collections of cool. Young Consumers, Quarter 1, 18–27.

Schau, H.J., Muniz, A.M., and Arnould, E.J. (2009). How brand community practices create value. Journal of Marketing, 73, 30–51.

Schembri, S., Merrilees, B., and Kristiansen, S. (2010). Brand consumption and narrative of the self. Psychology & Marketing, 27, 623–638.

Schemer, C., Matthes, J., Wirth, W., and Textor, S. (2008). Does “passing the Courvoisier” always pay off? Positive and negative evaluative conditioning effects of brand placements in rap vídeos. Psychology & Marketing, 25 (10), 923-943.

Schor, J.B. (2004). Born to buy: The commercialized child and the new consumer culture. New York: Scribner.

Schroeder, J.E., and Dugal, S.S. (1995). Psychological correlates of the materialism construct. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 243–253.

Shaffer, D.R. (2002). Developmental psychology; childhood and adolescence (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson.

Shim, S. (1996). Adolescent consumer decision-making styles: The consumer socialization perspective. Psychology & Marketing, 13, 547.

Shultz, C.J., and Holbrook, M.B. (1999). Marketing and the tragedy of the commons: A synthesis, commentary, and analysis for action. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 18, 218–229.

Stewart, D.W., Shamdasani, P.N., and Rook, D.W. (2007). Focus groups, theory and practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.

Stinson, D.A., Logel, C., Zanna, M.P., Holmes, J.G., Cameron, J.J., Wood, J.V., et al. (2008). The cost of lower self-esteem: Testing a self- and social-bonds model of health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 412-428.

Strizhakova, Y., Coulter, R.A., and Price, L.L. (2008). Branded products as a passport to global citizenship: Perspectives from developed and developing countries. Journal of International Marketing, 16, 57–85.

Sung, Y., and Choi, S.M. (2010). “I won’t leave you although you disappoint me”: The interplay between satisfaction, investment, and alternatives in determining consumer- brand relationship commitment. Psychology & Marketing, 27, 1050–1074.

Ward, S. (1974). Consumer socialization. The Journal of Consumer Research, 1, 1–14.

Watson, W.E., Kumar, K., and Michaelsen, L.K. (1993). Cultural diversity’s impact on interaction process and performance: Comparing homogeneous and diverse task groups. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 590-602.

Weiss, D.S., and Mendelsohn, G.A. (1986). An expirical demonstration of the implausibility of the semantic similarity explanation of how trait ratings are made and what they mean. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50 (3), 595-601.

Wells, L.E., and Marwell, G. (1976). Self-esteem: Its conceptualization and measurement. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications,.

Wicklund, R., and Gollwitzer, P. (1982). Symbolic self-completion. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Wilcox, K., Kim, H.M., and Sen, S. (2009). Why do consumers buy counterfeit luxury brands? Journal of Marketing Research, 46, 247-259.

Yalkin, C., and Elliott, R. (2006). Teenagers’ friendship groups and fashion brands: A group socialization approach. 35th EMAC Conference. Athens.

Young, B. (2004). The growing consumer. Young Consumers, Quarter 4, 22–29.

Zinkhan, G.M., and Fornell, C. (1985). A test of two consumer response scales in advertising. Journal of Marketing Research, 22, 447-452


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c)



© Faculty of Management (SNSPA)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under CC BY-NC

The opinions expressed in the papers published are the authors’ own and do not necessarily express the views of the editors of this journal. The authors assume all responsibility for the ideas expressed in the materials published.

ISSN 2392-8042 (online)