This is an outdated version published on 2022-03-18. Read the most recent version.

Telework in Romania. Current State and Sustainable Socio-Economic Effects of Its Development



The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the current stage of implementation of telework in Romania and to determine potential positive and sustainable effects generated by its development on a large scale. The research methodology used is based on descriptive analysis, comparative analysis, but also on econometric analysis. The general results obtained show that Romania registers a very low level of telework employees, this being influenced, not only by the low share of those with tertiary education and high skilled professionals, but also by the fact that most Romanian employees do not want to practice this type of work. The results also showed that telework can generate significant economic and social benefits. The potential solutions we have identified for the sustainable development of the telework phenomenon in Romania include investments in tertiary education and awareness campaigns among both employees and companies, regarding the positive effects that can be obtained through telework and business development.


Aguilera, A., Lethiais, V., Rallet, A., & Proulhac, L. (2016). Home-based telework in France: Characteristics, barriers and perspectives. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 92(C), 1–11.

Ansong, E., & Boateng, R. (2018). Organisational adoption of telecommuting: Evidence from a developing country. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 84(1), 1–15.

Anderson, A. J., Kaplan, S. A., & Vega, R. P. (2014). The impact of telework on emotional experience: When, and for whom, does telework improve daily affective well-being? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(6), 882–897.

Andrei, A. M. (2021). Teleworking, Teamwork and Transactive Memory during the COVID-19 Outbreak. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 9(3), 393-403.

Baruch, Y., & Nicholson, N. (1997). Home, Sweet Work: Requirements for Effective Home Working. Journal of General Management, 23(2), 15–30.

Batut, C., & Tabet, Y. (2020). What do we know about the economic effects of remote work?, Direction générale du Trésor, Trésor-Economics, No. 270, November.

Binder, M., & Coad, A. (2016). How satisfied are the self-employed? A life domain view. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(4), 1409–1433.

Bloom, N., Liang, J., Roberts, J., & Ying, Z. J. (2015). Does working from home work? Evidence from a Chinese experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130(1), 165–218.

Boeri, T., Caiumi, A., & Paccagnella, M. (2020). Mitigating the work-security trade-off while rebooting the economy. Covid Economics, Vetted and Real-Time Paper, CEPR, 2, 60-66.

Boogaard, J., & Moller, S. (2020). Exploring the Post-COVID-19 Workplace. Colliers International

Davenport, T.H., & Pearlson, K. (1998). Two cheers for the virtual office. MIT Sloan Management. Review, 39, 51–65.

Delventhal, M., Kwon, E., & Parkhomenko, A. (2020). How Do Cities Change When We Work from Home? SSRN Electronic Journal.

DeFilippis, E., Impink, S., Singell, M., Polzer, J. T., & Sadun, R. (2020). Collaborating During Coronavirus: The Impact of COVID-19 on the Nature of Work. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Dey, M., Frazis, H., Loewenstein, M.A., & Sun, H. (2020). Ability to work from home: evidence from two surveys and implications for the labor market in the COVID-19 pandemic. Monthly Labor Review, June.

Dingel, J., I., & Neiman, B. (2020). How many jobs can be done at home?. NBER Working Paper Series, National Bureau of Economic Research, 26948.

Eurofound. (2020a). Living, Working and COVID-19. First Findings. Publications Office of the European Union. field_ef_document/ef20058en.pdf

Eurofound. (2020b). Living, working and COVID-19 dataset.

European Automobile Manufacturers Association. (2021, March 23). New Passenger Car Registrations European Union.

European Commission’s Science and Knowledge Center. (2021, April 15). Telework in the EU Before and After the COVID-19: Where We Were, Where We Head to. European Commission. _telework_final.pdf

European Parliament. (2021). The impact of teleworking and digital work on workers and society. etudes/STUD/2021/662904/IPOL_STU(2021)662904_EN.pdf

Eurostat. (2022a). Employed persons working from home as a percentage of the total employment, by sex, age and professional status.

Eurostat. (2022b). Employment by educational attainment level. eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/lfsi_educ_a

Eurostat. (2022c). Employment by sex, age, professional status and occupation.

Eurostat. (2022d). Employment by sex, age, professional status and full-time/part-time.

Eurostat. (2022e). Employment rates by sex, age, educational attainment level, citizenship and degree of urbanization. table?lang=en

Eurostat. (2022f). Percentage of employed people working at home by sex, age groups and household composition.

Felstead, A., & Henseke, G. (2017). Assessing the growth of remote working and its consequences for effort, well-being and work-life balance. New Technology, Work and Employment, 32(3), 195–212.

Fonner, K. L., & Roloff, M. E. (2010). Why Teleworkers are More Satisfied with Their Jobs than are Office-Based Workers: When Less Contact is Beneficial. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 38(4), 336–361.

Fonner, K. L., & Roloff, M. E. (2012). Testing the Connectivity Paradox: Linking Teleworkers’ Communication Media Use to Social Presence, Stress from Interruptions, and Organizational Identification. Communication Monographs, 79(2), 205–231.

Global Workplace Analytics. (2021a). Work-at-Home after Covid-19 - Our Forecast.

Global Workplace Analytics. (2021b). Employee Savings Calculator.

Grigorescu, A., & Mocanu, N.A. (2020). Teleworking perspectives for Romanian SMEs after the COVID-19 pandemic. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 8(4), 383-399.

Haddon, L., & Brynin, M. (2005). The character of telework and the characteristics of teleworkers. New Technology, Work and Employment, 20(1), 34–46.

Hill, E., Ferris, M., & Märtinson, V. (2003). Does it matter where you work? A comparison of how three work venues (traditional office, virtual office, and home office) influence aspects of work and personal/family life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(2), 220–241.

Hoornweg, N., Peters, P., & van der Heijden, B. (2017). Finding the optimal mix between telework and office hours to enhance employee productivity: A study into the relationship between telework intensity and individual productivity, with mediation of intrinsic motivation and moderation of office hours. New Ways of Working Practices (pp. 1–28). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Hynes, M. (2014). Telework Isn’t Working: A Policy Review. The Economic and Social Review, 45(4), 579–602.

Hraskova, D., & Rolkova, M. (2012). Teleworking, a Flexible Conception of Managing the Enterprise. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific Conference “Whither Our Economies” (pp. 39-45). Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania.

ILOSTAT. (2021). Employment by occupation. description _OCU_EN.pdf

Karanikas, N., & Cauchi, J. (2020). Literature review on parameters related to work-from-home (WFH) arrangements. QUT ePrints.

Kazekami, S. (2020). Mechanisms to improve labor productivity by performing telework. Telecommunications Policy, 44(2), 101868.

Mann, S., & Holdsworth, L. (2003). The Psychological Impact of Teleworking: Stress, Emotions and Health. New Technology, Work and Employment, 18(3), 196-211.

Mas, A., & Pallais, A. (2020). Alternative work arrangements. Annual Review of Economics. 12(1), 631– 658.

Messenger, J., & Gschwind, L. (2016). Three generations of Telework: New ICTs and the (R)evolution from Home Office to Virtual Office. New Technology Work and Employment, 31(3), 195–208.

Mitchell, D. (2017). 50 Top Tools for Employee Engagement: A Complete Toolkit for Improving Motivation and Productivity. Kogan Page.

Montagut, W.V., Carrillo, L.P.V., & Delgado, M.D.P.S. (2017). Model for implementation of teleworking in software development organizations. Sistemas Telemática, 15(1), 29–44.

Nilles, J. M. (1994). Making Telecommuting Happen. VNR.

Pabilonia, S.W. and Vernon, V. (2021). Telework, wages, and time use in the United States. GLO Discussion Paper No. 546.

Peco Online (2021). Peco Online.

Pyöriä, P. (2011). Managing telework: Risks, fears and rules. Management Research Review, 34(4), 386–399.

Sarbu, M. (2015). Determinants of Work-at-Home Arrangements for German Employees. Labour, 29(4), 444–469.

Stich, J.-F. (2020). A review of workplace stress in the virtual office. Intelligent Buildings International, 12(3), 208-220.

TomTom Traffic Index. (2021). Bucharest traffic report.

Turetken, O., Jain, A., Quesenberry, B., & Ngwenyama, O. (2011). An empirical investigation of the impact of individual and work characteristics on telecommuting success. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 54(1), 56–67.

Versey, H. S. (2015). Managing work and family: Do control strategies help? Developmental Psychology, 51(11), 1672–1681.

Vilhelmson, B., & Thulin, E. (2016). Who and where are the flexible workers? Exploring the current diffusion of telework in Sweden. New Technology Work and Employment, 31(1), 77–96.

Waizenegger, L., McKenna, B., Cai, W., & Bendz, T. (2020). An affordance perspective of team collaboration and enforced working from home during COVID-19. European Journal of Information Systems, 29(4), 429–442.

Walls, M., Safirova, E., & Jiang, Y. (2007). What Drives Telecommuting? Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2010(1), 111–120.

Wheatley, D. (2017). Employee satisfaction and use of flexible working arrangements. Work Employ & Society, 31(4), 567–85.

Wojcak, E., Bajzikova, L., Sajgalikova, H., & Polakova, M. (2016). How to achieve sustainable efficiency with teleworkers: Leadership model in telework. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 33–41.

Ziarul Financiar. (2021). Care sunt masinile cu cel mai redus consum de carburant din Romania.





How to Cite

SUCIU, M. C., & PETRE, A. (2022). Telework in Romania. Current State and Sustainable Socio-Economic Effects of Its Development. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 10(1), 53–68. Retrieved from